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Monday 19 February 2024

How To Perform Dry Ablution (Tayammum)

Tayammum (Dry ablution'): it is a method of cleansing oneself using clean sand. It serves as a replacement for both Wudu (partial ablution) and Ghusl (complete ablution) but only under special circumstances.

Evidences From The Quran And Hadith

This act of ritual cleansing is proven by the Qur'an, Sunnah (prophetic tradition) and Ijmaa' (consensus of Muslim scholars).

Allaah the Most High says:

"O you who believe! When you intend to offer As-Salat (the prayer), wash your faces and your hands (forearms) up to the elbows, rub (by passing wet hands over) your heads, and (wash) your feet up to ankles. If you are in a state of Jannaba (i.e. had a sexual discharge), purify yourself (bathe your whole body). But if you are ill or on a journey or any of you comes from answering the call of nature, or you have been in contact with women (i.e. sexual intercourse) and you find no water, then perform Tayammum with clean earth and rub therewith your faces and hands. Allaah does not want to place you in difficulty, but He wants to purify you, and to complete His Favour on you that you may be thankful. 

[Quran 5:6]

"And if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women (i.e., had sexual intercourse) and find no water, then seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and your hands (with it). Indeed, Allaah is ever Pardoning and Forgiving." [Qur'an 4:43]

From the Sunnah, we have the Hadeeth Narrated by Abu Umaamah may Allah be pleased with him) thať the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "All of the earth has been made a pure place of prayer for me and my nation. Whenever a person from my nation wants to pray, he has something with which to purify himself, that is, the earth." 

[Imam Ahmad]

Narrated by Abdur Rahman bin Abza (may Allaah be pleased with him) that Ammar said to Umar 'I rolled myself in the dust and came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings be upon him) who said,' Passing dusted hands over the face and the backs of the hands is sufficient for you." 

[Sahih Bukhari]

Narrated by Ammar (may Allaah be pleased with him): that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings be upon him) stroked the earth with his hands and then passed them over his face and the backs of his hands (while demonstrating Tayammum). 

[Sahih Bukhari]

When To Make Tayammum

One is permitted to make Tayammum in any of the following cases:

1 - If one cannot find water or the amount one finds is insufficient for ablution

Narrated by 'Imraan Ibn Husayn (may Allaah be pleased with him) that: "We were with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings be upon him) during a journey. When he led the people in prayer, one man stayed apart. He the Messenger of Allaah (pbuh) asked him: "What prevented you from praying?" He replied: 'I need a ritual bath (because of having a wet dream) and there is no water.' The Messenger of Allaah (pbuh) said: 'Use the soil, for it is sufficient (i.e. Tayammum).'' 

[Sahih Bukhaari & Muslim]

2 - If one is injured or ill

If one is in this condition and thinks that using water will worsen it (he does not have to be absolutely sure, but may base his assumption on past experience or what a knowledgeable person has told him), he may perform Tayammum.

Narrated by Jaabir (may Allaah be pleased with him) said, "We were on a journey and one of us was injured. Later, he had a wet dream. He asked his companions, 'Can I perform Tayammum?' They said, 'No, not if you have water.' He performed Ghusl, which caused him to die. When news of this came to the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings be upon him) he said: "They killed him! May Allaah kill them! Do you not ask if you do not know? The remedy for ignorance is to ask. He could have performed Tayammum and not dropped water on his wound, or wrapped it with something, then wiped over the wrapping, and then washed the rest of his body."

3 - If water is cold enough to physically harm the user

Tayammum is allowed when water is available but is too cold and cannot be heated, or there is no public bathroom available.

Narrated by Abu Dharr (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "The soil is a purifier for a Muslim, even if he does not find water for ten years. Then, if he finds water, that is, to make ablution, and so on, it becomes incumbent upon him to use it. 

[Imam Ahmad & At-Tirmithi]

4 - If water is nearby, but one cannot fetch it due to fear

If one fears for his life, family, wealth, (for example, if an enemy (beast or human) is nearby or if one is a prisoner, and so on) he may perform Tayammum. This is also allowed if there is water but one lacks the proper means to get it, or if one fears some accusation against him if he gets it.

5 - If one is saving his water for later use

This could be for dough, cooking, or to remove an impurity that is not pardonable.
Imaam Ahmad may Allaah have mercy upon him said: "Many of the Companions performed Tayammum to save their water for drinking."

Ali may Allaah be pleased with him said: "A man who is travelling and becomes unclean because of sexual intercourse, or a wet dream, can perform Tayammum if he fears he will go thirsty. He should perform Tayammum and not Ghusl." 


6 - If one can get water, but fears that the prayer will be over by the time he gets it

He can perform Tayammum and pray, and does not need to repeat his prayer (after he gets water).


It must be pure soil: this can be sand, stone, gypsum, and so on.
Allaah Almighty Says in the Qur'an (what means): "…Perform Tayammum with pure soil..."

[Qur'an 5:6]


Step 1

Find clean earth. Find a place where there is soil, sand or rock. Make sure that this place is clean and entirely free of all najasah (things which make one ritually unclean).

Step 2

Performing Tayammum, it is necessary to make its intention (niyyat) in your heart. You should mentally prepare yourself for the performance of an act of purification.

Step 3

Say Bismillah. Recite bismi-llāhi ar-ra māni ar-ra īmi (In the name of Allaah, the most Gracious, the most Merciful).

Step 4

Strike your hands on the ground. This act will most likely lift some dust. Brush it off and gently rub your face with your hands, beginning (as in Wudu) from the hairline to where the facial hair starts, and from the lobe of one ear to that of the other.

Step 5

Strike your hands on the ground again. Brush off the dust and intertwine the fingers of both hands. Using your left hand, rub your right arm from the fingertips up to the elbow, and back along the inner arm to the fingertips. Repeat this for your left arm.

Finish With The Dua As Given Below

Ashhadu an laa ilaaha ill-Allaah wahdahu laa shareeka lah, wa ashhadu anna Muhammadan abduhu wa rasooluhu.

(I bear witness that there is no god except Allaah alone, with no partner or associate, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and Messenger.)

Allaahumm aj alni min al-tawwaabeena waj alni min al-mutatahhireena
(O Allaah, make me one of those who repent and make me one of those who purify themselves).

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